Our lead book and website reviewer, Steve Kersten, recommends the following websites.

“Card Sorting: a Definitive Guide”

by Donna Mauer and Todd Warfel

An in-depth, easy-to-digest study of “open” card sorting (“closed” card sorting will be discussed in a later article). Includes theory, advantages and disadvantages, and excellent practical methodological advice. Available at

“Exploring User Mental Models of Breadcrumbs in Web Navigation”

by Angela Colter, Kathryn Summers, Cheri Smith

From the article’s abstract: “Breadcrumbs are a common Web site navigation element, yet little is known about whether users notice, use and understand what they are. We surveyed 4,775 sites to determine how many use breadcrumbs and what conventions exist, then conducted usability tests to explore user mental models of breadcrumbs.” The authors conclude “if a breadcrumb label happens to match what the user is looking for, and the user happens to see it, they may indeed use the links provided.” See

“Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”

by Donna Mauer

On Boxes and Arrows, Donna Mauer discusses four different “modes of seeking” that users use on the web: “Known Item,” “Exploratory,” “Don’t Know What You Need to Know,” and “Re-finding.” Check it out at the excellent Boxes and Arrows website:

IBM Design Concepts and Guidelines

This site provides a summary of user-centered design (UCD) concepts and style guidelines. It also includes IBM’s “Bill of User Rights.” See

Information Architecture Tutorial

by John Shiple

When you are responsible for understanding content and navigation, perhaps even for contributing to labeling and organization of a Web site or of a UA system, you are working in the realm of information architecture. Technical communicators will be well served by this series of tutorials/articles by John Shiple. His information architecture work forms an excellent resource for organizing your thoughts, experiences, and training on the tasks you already do, shedding light on them from the information architecture point of view. Working through the articles, you get experience with all the steps necessary for creating a site that meets the ease-of-use criteria of your audience. As you proceed through the lessons, you create and add on to a design document that, when you’ve completed the series, is ready to guide the development of your site. See

“Integration of Usability Techniques into the Software Development Process”

by Xavier Ferre

An academically-oriented but very accessible article describing how to present usability techniques to software developers using their language, terminology, and process divisions. See

Microsoft Vista UX Guidelines

One of the most exciting things about Vista, whether you think it’s the greatest thing or too little, very late, is that Microsoft is making available a lot of its research findings and design guidelines. The Vista UX Guidelines are an excellent source of information on interaction patterns. Instead of telling you what to do, it shows you how to think through conceptualizing and building interactions in Vista applications. Most of the information is easily adaptable (much of it applies as-is) to other Windows operations systems. Available on the MSDN site, Microsoft continues to update the guidelines.


“A Pattern Language Approach to Usability Knowledge Management”

by Michael Hughes

Michael Hughes has a great article about how usability testing helps individuals and teams build knowledge. Check it out at

“Sensible Forms: a Form Usability Checklist”

by Brian Crescimanno

This article provides a great checklist of UI design considerations in the context of designing Web forms. The checklist applies to all good UI design, and it clearly defines a set of heuristics you can apply to the UIs you are developing. See